This Week in Science for Holistic Health
Welcome to This Week in Science for Holistic Health!
I scour the science news for interesting and relevant research for a holistic approach to health.
Food and Eating – More props for the Mediterranean diet.
Supplements – Lipoic acid and EPA have different anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Disease Prevention – More research on the effects that diet can have on cancer.
Anatomy & Physiology – There is not enough fish for everyone to get the recommended EPA/DHA, so hopefully the future will have genetic tests to see who is better at creating it from ALA
Food and Eating
More clinical evidence that the Mediterranean diet can help to prevent and/or manage type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Yes, the Mediterranean diet can help with T2DM and MetS #diabetes Click To Tweet
Several studies provide evidence supporting a beneficial effect from the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review summarizes the current scientific evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials on the relation between the MedDiet and T2DM and MetS and the possible mechanisms underlying the reported associations. A recent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies showed that greater adherence to the MedDiet was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of diabetes. The MedDiet has also been found to be beneficial in the prevention of gestational diabetes. Four large prospective studies have observed inverse associations between the MedDiet and MetS or its components. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the effect of the MedDiet on T2DM and MetS. Results from the landmark PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) nutrition intervention trial showed that participants assigned to the MedDiet had a significant 30% reduction in the risk of T2DM and that it also promoted the reversion of MetS and its components, hyperglycemia and central obesity. In addition, 5 RCTs showed the beneficial effects of the MedDiet compared with other dietary patterns on glycemic control in patients with T2DM. A recent meta-analysis of RCTs revealed that, compared with a variety of control diets, the MedDiet was associated with beneficial effects on all MetS components. Bioactive components of the MedDiet synergize to affect various metabolic pathways, leading to a reduced cardiometabolic disease risk. The abundance of healthy, nutrient-dense foods that make up the plant-based MedDiet predicts its bioactivity and potential to beneficially influence metabolic pathways that lead to MetS and T2DM, as well as other chronic conditions. Abundant epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence supports the role of the MedDiet on the prevention and management of T2DM and MetS.
Intervention Trials with the Mediterranean Diet in Cardiovascular Prevention: Understanding Potential Mechanisms through Metabolomic Profiling.
We’re not quite sure how the Mediterranean diet reduces CVD risk, so here is a new potential blood test to look at metabolic biomolecules to try to figure it out.
Not quite sure how the Mediterranean diet reduces CVD risk, but it does. #heartdisease Click To Tweet
Large observational epidemiologic studies and randomized trials support the benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mechanisms postulated to mediate these benefits include the reduction of low-grade inflammation, increased adiponectin concentrations, decreased blood coagulation, enhanced endothelial function, lower oxidative stress, lower concentrations of oxidized LDL, and improved apolipoprotein profiles. However, the metabolic pathways through which the Mediterranean diet influences CVD risk remain largely unknown. Investigating specific mechanisms in the context of a large intervention trial with the use of high-throughput metabolomic profiling will provide more solid public health messages and may help to identify key molecular targets for more effective prevention and management of CVD. Although metabolomics is not without its limitations, the techniques allow for an assessment of thousands of metabolites, providing wide-ranging profiling of small molecules related to biological status. Specific candidate plasma metabolites that may be associated with CVD include branched-chain and aromatic amino acids; the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio; some short- to medium-chain acylcarnitines; gut flora metabolites (choline, betaine, and trimethylamine N-oxide); urea cycle metabolites (citrulline and ornithine); and specific lipid subclasses. In addition to targeted metabolites, the role of a large number of untargeted metabolites should also be assessed. Large intervention trials with the use of food patterns for the prevention of CVD provide an unparalleled opportunity to examine the effects of these interventions on plasma concentrations of specific metabolites and determine whether such changes mediate the benefits of the dietary interventions on CVD risk.
There is a strong association between an increase in omega-6:omega-3 ratio, and an increase in obesity; so, we should eat (and recommend) higher consumption of EPA & DHA.
Strong association of obesity if not enough omega-3s #obesity #omega3 Click To Tweet
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.
Early Eating Behaviours and Food Acceptance Revisited: Breastfeeding and Introduction of Complementary Foods as Predictive of Food Acceptance.
There seems to be a correlation of a number of factors during infancy (including pattern of introduction of foods) that affect which fruits/veg children are reluctant to eat.
Several feeding factors in infancy affect which fruits/veg children will eat #kidsnutrition Click To Tweet
Current dietary advice for children is that they should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day (Department of Health. National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2014). However, many parents report that children are reluctant to eat vegetables and often fail to comply with the five-a-day rule. In fact, in surveys carried out in areas in the UK, the number of children eating according to the five-a-day rule has been found to be as low as 16 % (Cockroft et al. Public Health Nutr 8(7):861-69, 2005). This narrative review looks at those factors which contribute to food acceptance, especially fruit and vegetables, and how acceptance might be enhanced to contribute to a wider dietary range in infancy and later childhood. The questions we address are whether the range of foods accepted is determined by the following: innate predispositions interacting with early experience with taste and textures, sensitive periods in infancy for introduction, breastfeeding and the pattern of introduction of complementary foods. Our conclusions are that all of these factors affect dietary range, and that both breastfeeding and the timely introduction of complementary foods predict subsequent food acceptance.
Yup! Fruit is good for your brain.
Yup! Fruit is good for your brain. #fruit #headache #anxiety #Alzheimer's #Parkinson's Click To Tweet
The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease.
Detailed description of blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, oranges, plums, prunes, red grapes, and pomegranates fruits is mentioned in the following sections. The numerous phytochemicals occurring in these fruits are listed in Table 1 and their structures are depicted by Figure 1.
Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages.
Fermented foods have many health benefits (which we keep learning more about), and consumption should be encouraged.
Fermented foods are full of health benefits #fermented #probiotic #gutmicrobiota Click To Tweet
Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics.
The value of fermented food cannot be overemphasized, as they have always played a vital role in diet and nutrition. The benefits associated with fermented foods, such as increased shelf life, palatability, and nutritional value, suggest the importance of these foods. The probiotic effects of various fermented foods and their associated microbial cultures look promising and warrant further research. Fermentation products of probiotic LAB from traditional foods can be a suitable alternative source of antimicrobial agents, incorporated in the fight against emerging antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Food fermentation is a method of preserving food by presenting a hurdle against pathogenic bacteria, and can mitigate diarrhea in communities with inferior potable water quality. Traditional foods, appropriately produced, are safe and acceptable, and qualify as a source of probiotics with novel applications.
While the mechanisms of action of probiotic LAB and their products, including bacteriocins, warrant further experimentation (in vitro and in vivo), and controlled clinical trials to exploit the maximum value is important, current developments suggest that consumption of fermented foods and beverages should be encouraged in all communities, especially in developing countries where probiotic dairy products may come at a great price. Probiotic bacteria have a potential in solving current and emerging lifestyle diseases. Surprisingly, LAB from fermented foods were recently found to play a positive role in mental health. Most of the probiotic microbial cultures in literature and currently available in the market are from outside Africa even though this continent has such a rich diversity of fermented foods that needs to be exploited as a source of probiotics. Hence, the search for novel probiotic bacteria from African fermented foods and beverages; and from other parts of the world should be intensified. Finally, metagenomics can play a crucial role in this process by providing insights into the genes, structure, and function of products from probiotic microorganisms.
Supplementation with α-Lipoic Acid Alone or in Combination with Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates the Inflammatory Status of Healthy Overweight or Obese Women Consuming an Energy-Restricted Diet.
Lipoic acid and EPA have different anti-inflammatory mechanisms
Lipoic acid and EPA are different kinds of anti-inflammatories #inflammation Click To Tweet
BACKGROUND: The proinflammatory state induced by obesity plays an important role in obesity-related metabolic complications.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with α-lipoic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), separately or in combination, could improve inflammatory and cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy overweight or obese women consuming an energy-restricted diet.
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with LA improves some systemic inflammatory and cardiovascular disease-related risk markers in healthy overweight or obese women independently of weight loss, whereas EPA modulates inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue.
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Diseases/Conditions and Prevention/Treatments
It is difficult to accurately study the complex effects that diet has on cancer, but the science is evolving.
Diet has complex effects on cancer; the science is evolving. #cancer #nutrition #diet Click To Tweet
Despite the potentially important roles of diet and nutrition in cancer prevention, the evidence to support these roles is widely perceived by the public and health professionals as being inconsistent. In this Review, we present the issues and challenges in conducting and interpreting diet-cancer research, including those relating to the design of epidemiological studies, dietary data collection methods, and factors that affect the outcome of intervention trials. Approaches to improve effect estimates, such as the use of biomarkers to improve the accuracy of characterizing dietary exposures, are also discussed. Nutritional and dietary patterns are complex; therefore, the use of a reductionist approach to investigations, by focusing on specific nutrients, can produce misleading information. The effects of tumour heterogeneity and the failure to appreciate the nonlinear, U-shaped relationship between micronutrients and cancer in both observational studies and clinical trials are discussed. New technologies and investigational approaches are enabling the exploration of complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic, metabolic, and gut-microbial processes that will inform our knowledge of the diet-cancer relationship. Communicating the status of the evolving science in the context of the overall scientific evidence base, and evidence-based dietary recommendations for cancer prevention, should be emphasized in guidance for the public and for individual patients.
Tocotrienols (and not tocopherols) seem to reduce metastasis of cancers, and part of it may be due to its anti-inflammatory effect. This looks promising, but more research is needed.
Certain type of vit E may reduce cancer metastasis #vitE #cancer #moreresearchneeded Click To Tweet
Tumor metastasis involves some of the most complex and dynamic processes in cancer, often leading to poor quality of life and inevitable death. The search for therapeutic compounds and treatment strategies to prevent and/or manage metastasis is the ultimate challenge to fight cancer. In the past two decades, research focus on vitamin E has had a shift from saturated tocopherols to unsaturated tocotrienols (T3). Despite sharing structural similarities with tocopherols, T3 strive to gain scientific prominence due to their anti-cancer effects. Recent studies have shed some light on the anti-metastatic properties of T3. In this review, the roles of T3 in each step of the metastatic process are discussed. During the invasion process, signaling pathways that regulate the extracellular matrix and tumor cell motility have been reported to be modulated by T3. Although studies on T3 and tumor cell migration are fairly limited, they were shown to play a vital role in the suppression of angiogenesis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of T3 could be highly promising in the regulation of tumor microenvironment, which is crucial in supporting tumor growth in distant organs.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions providing personalized feedback for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.
So, it looks like there isn’t much of a difference between personalized feedback and no feedback when it comes to weight loss interventions.
Weight loss interventions can work with or without personalized feedback #weightloss Click To Tweet
BACKGROUND: Obesity levels continue to rise annually. Face-to-face weight loss consultations have previously identified mixed effectiveness and face high demand with limited resources. Therefore, alternative interventions, such as internet-delivered interventions, warrant further investigation. The aim was to assess whether internet-delivered weight loss interventions providing personalized feedback were more effective for weight loss in overweight and obese adults in comparison with control groups receiving no personalized feedback.
METHOD: Nine databases were searched, and 12 studies were identified that met all inclusion criteria.
CONCLUSION: This suggests that personalized feedback may be an important behaviour change technique (BCT) to incorporate within internet-delivered weight loss interventions. However, meta-analysis results revealed no differences between internet-delivered weight loss interventions with personalized feedback and control interventions ≥12 months. Further investigation into longer term internet-delivered interventions is required to examine how weight loss could be maintained. Future research examining which BCTs are most effective for internet-delivered weight loss interventions is suggested.
There is promising, but limited, evidence that nutrition can improve cognitive function or prevent cognitive decline in older people without dementia. More studies are needed.
Nutrition might help older people without dementia. #dementia #moreresearchneeded Click To Tweet
In recent years, the possibility of favorably influencing the cognitive trajectory through promotion of lifestyle modifications has been increasingly investigated. In particular, the relationship between nutritional habits and cognitive health has attracted special attention. The present review is designed to retrieve and discuss recent evidence (published over the last 3 years) coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of nutritional interventions aimed at improving cognitive functioning and/or preventing cognitive decline in non-demented older individuals. A systematic review of literature was conducted, leading to the identification of 11 studies of interest. Overall, most of the nutritional interventions tested by the selected RCTs were found to produce statistically significant cognitive benefits (defined as improved neuropsychological test scores). Nevertheless, the clinical meaningfulness of such findings was not adequately discussed and appears controversial. In parallel, only 2 studies investigated between-group differences concerning incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment cases, reporting conflicting results. Results of the present review suggest that several dietary patterns and nutritional components may constitute promising strategies in postponing, slowing, and preventing cognitive decline. However, supporting evidence is overall weak and further studies are needed.
Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy.
Some natural products may help people with ADHD, but because it is a complex disease, combinations of botanicals, micronutrients, conventional medications and behavioural therapy may get the best results if they are very carefully combined. More studies are needed.
Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a “safer” approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments.
There are a number of available treatment options for ADHD; however, some of them may pose risks to patients . The botanical agents discussed in this study appear to be promising ADHD treatments considering their therapeutic effects and negligible negative side effects. Nevertheless, it has to be noted that ADHD is a complex disorder having multiple causes and, thus, the use of natural product-derived treatments alone may not sufficiently affect consistent change in ADHD symptoms (see ). As mentioned previously, more pronounced clinical benefit may be achieved by employing a multimodal treatment approach such as combination therapy of different botanical agents and/or micronutrients, botanical agents and conventional pharmacological treatments, and also behavioral therapy.
Although the use of natural medications for ADHD has been considered as a “safer” approach, natural products are still far from being called as standard ADHD treatments due to the lack of comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies that interrogate both their efficacy and safety. Moreover, it is challenging to compare efficacy profiles of herb therapy with conventional pharmacological ADHD treatments, mainly because herbal preparations are not standardized, and question regarding their purity, reliability, safety, and toxicity profiles will always arise . Therefore, using pure medications with known doses, described mechanisms of action, and adverse effects profiles is preferable with regard to the use of natural product-derived ADHD treatments.
The findings from recent, albeit few, studies which evaluated efficacy of adjunct therapy of botanical agents and nutritional supplements with a pharmacological ADHD treatment or another botanical agent suggest that combination therapy may be a promising approach in ADHD treatment. Nevertheless, positive findings from above-mentioned studies need to be replicated, and evidence for long-term effectiveness and safety should be aptly demonstrated. Efficacy of combining other botanical agents with pharmacological agents including other medications aside from methylphenidate (e.g., atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine) or with behavioral therapy should also be explored in future studies. As herbs usually contain more than one psychoactive substance and may have additive or interactive effects with the combined treatment, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully considered when combined with other medications.
Anatomy & Physiology
Prediction of winter vitamin D status and requirements in the UK population based on 25(OH) vitamin D half-life and dietary intake data.
If creating a mathematical model to predict a population’s vitamin D levels isn’t indicative of a widespread effect, I don’t know what is!
- We developed a mathematical model to predict longitudinally the population mean plasma 25(OH)D concentration during winter.
- Predicted values closely matched plasma 25(OH)D concentrations as measured in the UK population.
- Vitamin D intake required to maintain the population mean plasma 25(OH)D concentration at a predetermined concentration can be predicted from this model.
There are a lot of genetic factors that determine how well each person can biochemically synthesize EPA & DHA from ALA (see image below) & click to link to full study.
Current sources of fish can only supply 40% of the recommended 500mg/day EPA + DHA for the world population!
The authors hope that effective genotype tests in the future can help to personalize dietary advice.
One day we might know who can't make EPA & DHA from ALA #omega3 #fishoil #vegan Click To Tweet
At a population level, cardioprotective and cognitive actions of the fish oil (FO) derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been extensively demonstrated. In addition to dietary intake, which is limited for many individuals, EPA and DHA status is dependent on the efficiency of their biosynthesis from α-linolenic acid. Gender and common gene variants have been identified as influencing the rate-limiting desaturase and elongase enzymes. Response to a particular intake or status is also highly heterogeneous and likely influenced by genetic variants which impact on EPA and DHA metabolism and tissue partitioning, transcription factor activity, or physiological end-point regulation. Here, available literature relating genotype to tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention is considered. It is concluded that the available evidence is relatively limited, with much of the variability unexplained, though APOE and FADS genotypes are emerging as being important. Although genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions have been described for a number of phenotypes, few have been confirmed in independent studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic, physiological and behavioural modulators of EPA and DHA status and response to intervention is needed to allow refinement of current dietary LC n-3 PUFA recommendations and stratification of advice to “vulnerable” and responsive subgroups.
Dietary recommendations typically suggest an intake of EPA plus DHA of at least 500 mg per day. It is likely that higher intakes are needed to meaningfully modify many of the responsive CVD risk factors, providing some justification for increasing the current recommended intakes. However EPA and DHA supply and sustainability is an issue, with current sources, almost exclusively derived from fish, providing only 40% of what is needed in order for individuals globally to consume 500 mg per day . The heterogeneity in response and this issue of supply provides a rationale to stratify advice to responsive individuals. But current understanding of the determinants of response is incomplete, with only a proportion of the genetic contribution identified and fully substantiated, and the mechanistic basis of identified genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions poorly understood. Such information must be gained from adequately powered “fit-for-purpose” studies, avoiding under-powered investigations which may be associated with spurious conclusions. Research to date has largely employed a candidate gene type approaches, with a future wider use of untargeted approaches such as GWAS or sequencing, in combination with a sensitive capture of EPA and DHA intake or status, needed to identify novel genetic modulators of EPA and DHA responses. Common gene variants are likely to be an important determinant of EPA and DHA status and associated physiological impacts. In the future, and with a more robust knowledge base, it is hoped that genotype could contribute to the targeting of dietary advice with for example increased intakes recommended in pregnancy to those with a FADS-elongase genetic profile indicative of a compromised EPA and DHA endogenous biosynthesis, or to APOE4 individuals who may be likely to particularly benefit from the cognitive or TG lowering benefits.
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Inclusion Criteria for This Week in Science for Holistic Health posts:
- Studies must be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal or highly credible website (e.g. Cochrane.org) within the last few weeks,
- Articles must be relevant to a holistic approach to health (specifically nutrition & lifestyle factors),
- Studies were done on people unless noted otherwise (animal and tissue studies have unknown relevance to people),
- I also include new science-based books that look interesting (’cause I LOVE reading!).
- None of the above applies if it’s a response to something in the media. 😉
- P.S. – The titles are hyperlinked to the actual studies, so feel free to “geek out”. 🙂
Is there a holistic health topic you’d like covered? Scroll down to vote! 🙂
What Leesa is reading now:
I love the NutritionFacts.org site, it’s definitely one of my “go-to’s” when it comes to nutrition and health information
How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease by Michael Greger, MD
Part 1 includes chapters for “How not to die from:” heart/lung/brain, etc. diseases with almost 3,000 scientific references; Part 2 has Dr. Greger’s favourite recipes, kitchen gadgets, brands, etc.. I’m looking forward to reading this!
Watch the trailer here:
Buy the book here:
(affiliate link image above)
Leesa Klich is a science-based holistic nutritionist living at the intersection of science and holistic health (it’s really, really interesting here!) 🙂 At NutritionInteractions she helps holistic-minded people taking medications maximize the benefits of good nutrition. She also helps holistic health professionals find and understand science-based health information. She has a MSc in Toxicology and Nutrition, over a decade experience in drug/supplement safety, and is also a Registered Holistic Nutritionist. For a list of free health resources, click here.
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